From Jesus Through the Centuries: His Place in the History of Culture (chapter 11) by Jaroslav Pelikan:
This controversy over poverty [following the life of Saint Francis] had some unlooked-for political consequences. Nothing would seem to be more otherworldly and apocalyptical, indeed downright idealistic, than the doctrine that because Christ, Mary and the apostles had practiced total poverty it was incumbent on the church to obey their example and to abstain from owning anything. Yet by one of those curious ironies with which history (and perhaps especially the history of the church) is fraught, this otherworldly position formed an alliance with various radical secularists of the fourteenth century who were asserting the authority of the state over against that of the church. The eminent Franciscan theologian and philosopher, William of Ockham, attacked Pope John XXII for modifying the requirements of the Rule and Testament of Francis on poverty. During the ensuing conflict, Ockham found political asylum at the court of the Holy Roman Emperor, Louis of Bavaria, who was engaged in a struggle with the papacy over the relative prerogatives of church and state. Taking over some of Ockham’s arguments and adapting them in a manner that was in fact quite un-Franciscan and that Ockham—as a devoted churchman and, so he insisted, an orthodox Catholic had not intended—the emperor and his supporters cast themselves in the role of liberators of the true church from the burdens of property and power. In the process then, this image of Jesus made a contribution to the formulation of the founding principals and secular values of modern political philosophy. This was a long distance indeed from the Francis of the stigmata and his quest for the simplicity of the life set forth in the Gospels.